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Impact du phytomanagement de sites pollués par les éléments traces métalliques sur les micro-organismes du sol

Abstract : Anthropogenic activities can cause dramatic changes in ecosystem structures and their ecological services. Phytomanagement based on the use of woody species can contribute to soil and microbial diversity restoration, while allowing the production of biomass of interest. As part of PROLIPHYT (2013-2018, ADEME), BIOFILTREE (2010-2014, ANR) and PHYTOPOP (2007-2011, ANR) projects, managed by the Chrono-environment laboratory, phytomanagement plots were installed on trace elements (TE) polluted sites to determine the growth potential of woody species and the recovery methods of biomass produced. In my PhD project, different approaches have been implemented to identify and characterize microorganisms subservient to implanted woody plants, with the aim of producing microbial resources to improve the recovery and growth of trees on polluted soil. The first approach was to study microbial communities in association with woody species by innovative high throughput sequencing approach associated with the physical and chemical analysis of soils. This method was developed and tested on three experimental sites contaminated by TE. It revealed changes in the structure and composition of microbial communities due to the nature of the vegetation cover and the soil characteristics (Zappelini et al., 2015; Foulon et al., 2016a; b). The second approach was to isolate and characterize mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes associated with poplars (Berthelot et al., 2016; Lacercat-Didier et al., 2016). These fungi are known to promote the growth of the plants they colonize but also to increase their TE tolerance. Several sampling campaigns of roots and sporocarps on different polluted sites have allowed the isolation of fungal strains tolerant to TE (like Serendipita vermifera) and enhancing growth (Phialophora sp. and Leptodontidium sp.). In a third approach, the mechanisms involved in TE resistance were studied i) in Paxillus involutus for Hg (Foulon et al. In prep) ii) by functional metatranscriptomics for Zn and Cd (Lehembre et al., 2013). In conclusion, this work allowed to i) improve our understanding of the impact of a woody cover on the structure and composition of microbial communities, and on the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved ii) to constitute a collection of fungal strains that will be of great interest for future phytomanagement projects.
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Julie Foulon. Impact du phytomanagement de sites pollués par les éléments traces métalliques sur les micro-organismes du sol. Sciences agricoles. Université de Franche-Comté, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BESA2090⟩. ⟨tel-02964813⟩



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